|Dutch Oven - from The Mercury
other half to Betty Carter, a granddaughter. This bequest
included several Dutch ovens.
|A Dutch oven is a thick-walled cooking pot with a tight-fitting
lid. Dutch ovens are usually made of seasoned cast iron, however some Dutch
ovens are instead made of cast aluminium, or are ceramic. Some metal varieties
are enameled rather than being seasoned. Dutch ovens have been used as
cooking vessels for hundreds of years. They are called casserole dishes
in English speaking countries other than the United States ("casserole"
means "pot" in French), and cocottes in French. They are similar to both
the Japanese tetsunabe and the Sa?, a traditional Balkan cast-iron oven,
and are related to the South African Potjie and the Australian Bedourie
Early European history
During the late 17th century, the Dutch system of producing
these cast metal cooking vessels was more advanced than the English system.
The Dutch used dry sand to make their molds, giving their pots a smoother
surface. Consequently, metal cooking vessels produced in the Netherlands
were imported into Britain. In 1704, an Englishman named Abraham Darby
decided to go to the Netherlands to observe the Dutch
system for making these cooking vessels. Four years later, back in England,
Darby patented a casting procedure similar to the Dutch process and began
to produce cast-metal cooking vessels for Britain and her new American
colonies. Thus the term “Dutch oven” has endured for over 300 years, since
at least 1710.
American Dutch ovens changed over time during the colonial
era. These changes included a shallower pot, legs to hold the oven above
the coals, and a lid flange to keep the coals on the lid and out of the
food. Paul Revere is credited with the design of the flat lid with a ridge
for holding coals as well as the addition of legs to the pots.
Colonists and settlers valued cast-iron cookware because
of its versatility and durability. Cooks used them to boil, bake, stew,
fry, and roast. The ovens were so valuable that wills in the 18th and 19th
centuries frequently spelled out the desired inheritor. For example, Mary
Ball Washington (mother of President George Washington) specified in her
will, dated 20 May 1788, that one-half of her "iron kitchen furniture"
should go to her grandson, Fielding Lewis, and the
An American Dutch oven, 1896
Westward bound settlers took Dutch ovens with them. A
Dutch oven was among the gear Lewis and Clark carried when they explored
the great American Northwest in 1804–1806. Mormon pioneers who settled
the American West also took along their Dutch ovens. In fact, a statue
raised to honor the Mormon handcart companies who entered Utah’s Salt Lake
Valley in the 1850s proudly displays a Dutch oven hanging from the front
of the handcart. The Dutch oven is also the official state cooking pot
of Texas, Utah and Arkansas.
Mountain men exploring the great American frontier used
Dutch ovens into the late 19th century. Chuck wagons accompanying western
cattle drives also carried Dutch ovens from the mid-19th century into the
early 20th century.
In the Netherlands, a Dutch oven is called a braadpan,
which literally translates to frying pan or roasting pan. The design most
used today is a black (with blue inside) enameled steel pan, that is suitable
for gas and induction heating. The model was introduced in 1891 by BK,
a well known Dutch manufacturer of cookware. Cheaper and lighter in weight
than cast iron, it proved to be a revolution in the kitchen. A braadpan
is mainly used for frying meat only, but it can also be used for making
traditional stews such as hachée. Cast-iron models exist, but are
used less frequently.
A camping, cowboy, or chuckwagon Dutch oven has three
legs, a wire bail handle, and a slightly concave, rimmed lid so that coals
from the cooking fire can be placed on top as well as below. This provides
more uniform internal heat and lets the inside act as an oven. These ovens
are typically made of bare cast iron, although some are aluminum. Dutch
ovens are often used in Scouting outdoor activities.
In Australia, a bedourie camp oven is a steel cookpot
shaped and used like a Dutch oven. Named after Bedourie, Queensland, the
Bedourie ovens were developed as a more robust (non-breakable) alternative
to the more fragile cast-iron Dutch ovens.
In South Africa, a potjie /p???ki?/, directly translated
"pottle or little pot" from Afrikaans or Dutch, is unlike most other Dutch
ovens, in that it is round bottomed. Traditionally, it is a single cast,
cast-iron pot, reinforced with external double or triple circumscribing
ribs, a wire handle for suspending the pot, and three short legs for resting
the pot. It is similar in appearance to a cauldron. It has a cast-iron
lid with a recessed convex contour to allow for hot coals to lie on top,
so that the pot may also be heated from above, and a handle. When the vessel
is to be stored long term, care must be taken to avoid rust forming, this
is accomplished by coating it in a non-toxic oil, such as cooking oil.
This act ensures that the vessel remains in a seasoned state. "Potjie"
can also refer to the technique of cooking potjiekos. Among the recipes
which require a potjie, there is one for a type of bread called "potbrood",
which literally means "pot bread".
Among the South African indigenous peoples (specifically
Zulus) these pots also became known as phutu pots, after a popular food
prepared in it. The larger pots are normally used for large gatherings
e.g. Funerals or weddings to prepare large quanties of food. Wooden spoons
referred to as Kombe in the Tsonga language are used for mixing and stirring.
This tradition originated in the Netherlands during the
Siege of Leiden and was brought to South Africa by Dutch immigrants. It
persisted over the years with the Voortrekkers and survives today as a
traditional Afrikaner method of cooking. It is still in common use by South
African campers, both domestic and international.
In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, a chugun is a cast-iron
pot used in a modern oven or in a traditional Russian oven, hearth, or
a campfire. A chugun is used in a variety of cooking methods including
high temperature cooking, low-temperature cooking, thermal cooking, slow
cooking, smothering, roasting, baking, braising, and stewing.
The shape of a chugun is similar to a traditional crock
with a narrow top and bottom and wider in the middle. When used inside
a traditional oven, a long handled holding tool is used with a roller that
serves as a lever to lift a heavy chugun in and out of the oven. Since
there are no handles, it's inconvenient to use a chugun on a stovetop.
Often several chuguns of different sizes are used in the
oven at the same time to prepare the entire meal. Dishes usually cooked
in a chugun are roast meat with vegetables called "zharkoye," holubtsi,
potato babka, stuffed peppers, and baked milk.
Use in cooking
Dutch ovens are well suited for long, slow cooking, such
as in making roasts, stews, and casseroles. Virtually any recipe that can
be cooked in a conventional oven can be cooked in a Dutch oven.
When cooking over a campfire, it is possible to use old-style
lipped cast-iron Dutch ovens as true baking ovens, to prepare biscuits,
cakes, breads, pizzas, and even pies. A smaller baking pan can be placed
inside the ovens, used and replaced with another as the first batch is
completed. It is also possible to stack Dutch ovens on top of each other,
conserving the heat that would normally rise from the hot coals on the
top. These stacks can be as high as 5 or 6 pots.
Seasoning and care
Bare cast iron
Americans traditionally season their iron Dutch ovens
like other cast-iron cookware.
After use Dutch ovens are typically cleaned like other
cast-iron cookware: with boiling water and a brush, and no or minimal soap.
After the oven has been dried, it should be given a thin coating of cooking
oil to prevent rusting. Whether that should be a vegetable fat or an animal
fat (such as lard) is hotly contested. Saturated fats are more stable than
polyunsaturated fats, which tend to go rancid more quickly. Alas, if the
oven is used regularly, this poses no issue. Mustard oil provides the highest
temperature resistance, which would be conducive to cooking.
Where possible, a cleaned and freshly oiled Dutch oven
should be stored in a clean, dry location with the lid ajar or off to promote
air circulation and to avoid the smell and taste of rancid oil. If the
Dutch oven must be stored with the lid on, a paper towel or piece of newspaper
should be placed inside the oven to absorb any moisture.
With care, after much use the surfaces of the Dutch oven
will become dark black, very smooth, shiny and non-stick. With proper care,
a Dutch oven will provide long service.
Enameled ovens do not need to be seasoned before use.
However, they lose some of the other advantages of bare cast iron. For
example, deep frying is usually not recommended in enameled ovens; the
enamel coating is not able to withstand high heat, and is best suited for
Enameled ovens can usually be cleaned like ordinary cookware,
and some brands can be put in the dishwasher.
However, enamel is not as resistant to scratches as iron.
|Tonopah, NV from Wikapedia
Tonopah is an unincorporated town in and the county seat
of Nye County, Nevada, United States. It is located at the junction of
U.S. Routes 6 and 95, approximately midway between Las Vegas and Reno.
In the 2010 census, the population was 2,478. The census-designated place
(CDP) of Tonopah has a total area of 16.2 square miles (42 km2), all land.
The European-American community began circa 1900 with
the discovery of silver-rich ore by prospector Jim Butler. The legendary
tale of discovery says that he went looking for a burro that had wandered
off during the night and sought shelter near a rock outcropping. When Butler
discovered the animal the next morning, he picked up a rock to throw at
it in frustration, noticing that the rock was unusually heavy. He had stumbled
upon the second-richest silver strike in Nevada history.
Men of wealth and power entered the region to consolidate
the mines and reinvest their profits into the infrastructure of the town
of Tonopah. George Wingfield, a 24-year-old poker player when he arrived
in Tonopah, played poker and dealt faro in the town saloons. Once he had
a small bankroll, he talked Jack Carey, owner of the Tonopah Club, into
taking him in as a partner and to file for a gaming license. In 1903, miners
rioted against Chinese workers in Tonopah. This resulted in China enforcing
a boycott in China of U.S. imported goods.
By 1904, after investing his winnings in the Boston-Tonopah
Mining Company, Wingfield was worth $2 million. When old friend George
S. Nixon, a banker, arrived in town, Wingfield invested in his Nye County
Bank. They grub-staked miners with friend Nick Abelman, and bought existing
mines. By the time the partners moved to Goldfield, Nevada and made their
Goldfield Consolidated Mining Company a public corporation in 1906, Nixon
and Wingfield were worth more than $30 million.
Wingfield believed that the end of the gold and silver
mining production was coming and took his bankroll to Reno, where he invested
heavily in real estate and casinos. Real estate and gaming became big business
throughout Central Nevada. By 1910, gold production was falling and by
1920, the town of Tonopah had less than half the population it had fifteen
Small mining ventures continued to provide income for
local miners and the small town struggled on. Located about halfway between
Reno and Las Vegas, it has supported travelers as a stopover and rest spot
on a lonely highway. Today the Tonopah Station has slots and the Banc Club
also offers some gaming.
Also in Nye County is the Yomba Band of the Yomba Indian
Reservation, a federally recognized band of Western Shoshone people. The
Western Shoshone dominated most of Nevada at the time of European-American
settlement in the 1860s.
Since the late 20th century, Tonopah has relied on the
nearby military Tonopah Test Range as its main source of employment. The
military has used the range and surrounding areas as a nuclear bomb test
site, a bombing range, and as a base of operations for the development
of the F-117 Nighthawk.
In the fall of 2011, a California-based solar energy company,
SolarReserve, started construction on $980 million advanced solar energy
project just outside town called the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project.
The project incorporates SolarReserve's advanced solar energy storage technology
and will put Tonopah at the worldwide center of technology for this class
of solar energy storage. The project construction activities, which peaks
at 800 workers on site, was scheduled to be completed in 2014.
Etymology and pronunciation
Founder, Jim Butler named the settlement, from what is
thought to be a Shoshone language word, pronounced "TOE-nuh-pah." Although
the town previously had a variety of names, including Butler City, Jim
Butler's name has survived. According to local history, the name is said
to mean "hidden spring".
Linguistically the name derives from either Shoshone to-nuv
(greasewood), or Northern Paiute to-nav (greasewood), and pa, meaning water
in both dialects.
Tonopah has an arid, cold desert climate with cool winters
and hot summers. Due to Tonopah’s aridity and high altitude, daily temperature
ranges are quite large. Nights are cool, even in summer.
There are an average of 50.3 afternoons with highs at
or above 90 °F or 32.2 °C, 157.8 mornings with lows of 32 °F
(0 °C) or lower, 7.6 afternoons where the high does not top freezing
and 1.7 mornings with lows below 0 °F or ?17.8 °C. The record high
temperature in Tonopah was 104 °F (40 °C) on July 18, 1960, and
the record low ?15 °F (?26.1 °C) on January 24, 1937 and January
There are an average of 38 days with measurable precipitation.
The wettest calendar year was 1946 with 10.27 in (261 mm) and the driest
1927 with 1.92 in (49 mm). The most precipitation in one month was 2.87
inches (72.9 mm) in November 1946. The most precipitation in 24 hours was
1.62 inches (41.1 mm) on August 17, 1977. Average annual snowfall is 16.8
inches or 0.43 metres, though even in winter the median snow depth is zero
and the maximum recorded only 13 inches or 0.33 metres on February 11,
1968. The most snowfall in one year was 79.3 inches (2.01 m) from July
1946 to June 1947, including 37.0 inches or 0.94 metres in November 1946.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,627 people, 1,109
households, and 672 families residing in the CDP. The population density
was 162.1 people per square mile (2.59/km²). There were 1,561 housing
units at an average density of 96.3 per square mile (37.2/km²). The
racial makeup of the CDP was 91.24% White, 1.41% Native American, 0.76%
African American, 0.42% Asian, 0.30% Pacific Islander, 2.82% from other
races, and 3.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race
were 6.17% of the population.
There were 1,109 households out of which 32.2% had children
under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living
together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.4%
were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals
and 10.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The
average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 3.03.
In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.1% under
the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to
64, and 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39
years. For every 100 females there were 108.3 males. For every 100 women
age 18 and over, there were 105.9 men.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $37,401,
and the median income for a family was $47,917. Males had a median income
of $40,018 versus $22,056 for females. The per capita income for the CDP
was $18,256. About 5.7% of families and 11.2% of the population were below
the poverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 19.1% of those
age 65 or over.
During the silver bonanza of the first decade of the 20th
century, the need in the precious-metal fields for freight service led
to construction of a network of local railroad lines across the Nevada
desert to Tonopah. Examples include the Las Vegas and Tonopah Railroad,
the Tonopah and Goldfield Railroad, and the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad.
Coal was hauled to the silver mines to power mine operations and also the
stamp mills built in and around Tonopah to break apart the hard-rock ore
for milling and refining.
As the railroad lines were reduced with the decline of
mining and restructuring of railroads in the late 20th century, 18-wheelers
became the dominant method of moving freight. Tonopah took on a new identity
as an extreme freight destination. The chorus of the song "Willin'" by
Lowell George of Little Feat on the albums Little Feat, Sailin' Shoes,
and Waiting for Columbus refers to either Tonopah, Arizona, or Tonopah,
And I've been from Tucson to Tucumcari,
Tehachapi to Tonopah.
I've driven every kind of rig that's
ever been made;
driven the backroads so I wouldn't
In the early 21st century, Tonopah is served by two U.S.
Highways, Routes 6 and 95. There is no rail service. General aviation facilities
are located at nearby Tonopah Airport. The nearest airport with scheduled
passenger service is Mammoth Yosemite Airport, about 100 miles away. The
nearest major airports are McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas,
and Reno–Tahoe International Airport in Reno, each more than 200 miles
Hugh Bradner, physicist, and inventor
of the neoprene wetsuit, which helped to revolutionize scuba diving.
T. Brian Callister, MD, physician
and nationally known health care policy expert; practiced in Tonopah between
1991 and 1995.
Thomas Joseph Connolly. Roman Catholic
bishop of Baker
Barbara Graham, the notorious Butcher
of Burbank, California. One of four women to be executed in California.
William Robert Johnson, Roman Catholic
bishop of Orange
Andriza Mircovich, only prisoner to
be executed by shooting in Nevada.
Tasker Oddie, 12th Governor of Nevada
and a United States Senator; resident of Tonopah.
Key Pittman, U.S. Senator from 1913-40;
resident of Tonopah.
Vail M. Pittman, Governor of Nevada
1945-51; resident of Tonopah.
Stalking Cat, body modification icon.
Claire Fahy, pioneering aviator, died
here on 19 December 1930, after the airplane she was piloting crashed when
the engine stalled on
takeoff at 50 feet.
Places of interest
Mizpah Hotel, with construction begun
in 1905, shortly after the town of Tonopah was founded, and finished in
late 1908, after several delays. The Mizpah Hotel was once the tallest
building in the state.
Clown Motel is located next to a graveyard.
In popular culture
Tonopah was the subject of an episode
of Rhett & Link: Commercial Kings. Rhett and Link developed a slogan
for the town
The television show Ghost Adventures
has filmed multiple episodes in Tonopah, which is known for its haunted
buildings, most notably
the Mizpah Hotel.
The Clown Motel was featured on the
Longmont Potion Castle Volume 9 track "Clown Motel".
The song, "Willin'", written by Lowell
George, refers to Tonopah as one of the far flung destinations visited
by the song's protagonist, a
truck driver. The
refrain begins, "I've been from Tucson to Tucumcari, Tehachapi to Tonopah."
Tonopah is a very important shipping
location in the SCS Software video game American Truck Simulator.